The NFC technology
Near field communication (NFC) is a set of standards for Smartphones and similar devices to establish radio communication with each other by touching them together or bringing them into close proximity. The standard describes a radio technology that allows two devices to communicate at a short distance, no more than a few centimeters, allowing the exchange of information quickly and safely.
From the user-end, NFC represents a true revolution, the possibility to provide in a unique device a mobile wallet, a credit and debit cards, a tag for dynamic identification, an instrument to share information. For this reason NFC technology is really desirable for different business and marketing models. The NFC solutions have the ambitious task to be the link across diverse fields from health care to telecommunication.
The NFC technology is widely used in many areas and the main applications that can benefit from its introduction are:
NFC standards cover communications protocols and data exchange formats, and are based on existing radio-frequency identification (RFID) standards, including ISO/IEC 14443 related to Identification cards, contactless integrated circuit cards and proximity cards.
From a technological perspective NFC is an extension also of the standards ECMA and ETSI, and describe the integration of a smart card with a terminal device.
All NFC devices allow writing and reading of information at a high speed (424Kbis / s) once two devices, approaching less than few centimeters away, creating a wireless connection, which is also compatible with the already known WI-Fi and Bluetooth. The short distances between terminals of communications make it more secure, making really difficult data “sniffing”.
An NFC device can communicate with existing card readers and ISO 14443 as with other NFC devices, these features make it compatible with existing RFID infrastructures.
When we speak about NFC today, we immediately refer mobile communication and the possibility to extend the usage of mobile devices as payment terminal. Major firms such as Nokia and Google are developing a lot of projects related to this scenario anyway, we must consider that NFC could be adopted in various areas, healthcare for example. NFC devices can operate in three modes mainly:
Many US corporations have or are planning to provide NFC devices or solutions, including device manufacturers such as Google and Apple, financial services as MasterCard and Visa, Citigroup and also mobile operators such as AT&T and Verizon, big companies that drive the business and the markets are massive investments in the technologies attracting a multitude of minor firms that provide development for the incoming standard.
The killer application for the future is the one that will make possible for multiple card issuers and payment processors to share space on an NFC handset opening the technology to a scenario rich of applications.
We are in front of one of the business opportunity of our times, several international researchers have confirmed it by providing extraordinary figures, according Deloitte firm in fact:
The 2015 will be the year of the consecration of NFC technology, over 50% of Smartphones will have the NFC capability (Gartner Research), NFC technology will be the most-used solution for mobile payment and NFC will enable worldwide transactions totaling about $151.7 billion (Frost & Sullivan), global mobile transactions predicted to grow to more than $1 Trillion by 2015 (Yankee Group), it’s clear the dimension of the business related to the standards.
The expected success of the NFC introduction in several sectors will attract the interest of worldwide, hackers and cyber criminals, let’s remind that the born of a new technology is a unrepeatable opportunity to exploit 0-day vulnerabilities, in the specific case an attack to the standards could impact several sectors with serious consequences.
Although the communication range of NFC is limited to a few centimeters, the standard does not ensure secure communications and several types of attacks are already known in literature. The current ISO standard doesn’t address these attack methods, for example the NFC despite suffers Man In The Middle attacks, no protection is offered against eavesdropping making exchanged data vulnerable to data modifications. Following a short list of the main attacks know of NFC technologies:
Near field technology will have also a potentially dramatic impact user’s privacy, as with credit cards, sensitive data are stored on NFC devices that will become targets for cyber criminals. The good news is the security level provided by a device like a Smartphone could be better than the one provided by a smartcard.
NFC technology will become omnipresent in our lives, many devices surround us will implement the standards from the mobile phone to the access management system of our office. Payments, accesses, visited places, all this information can be acquired monitoring an NFC device associated with our identity.
Anyway, we must consider that NFC usage could be extended to several sectors, from private business to the military, for this reason security and privacy are most concerning issues. Several studies indicate that most consumers do not understand current risks and are not diligent about the security of their mobile devices.
“The risks to personal privacy must be addressed,” say the authors of “Near Field Communications; Privacy, Regulation & Business Models”. “This is not only to protect against surveillance, but it is essential to ensure that there is confidence in the marketplaces that may yet emerge with widespread use of NFC.”
There is no doubt that the NFC will be a revolution in different sectors offering the possibility of having an “all in one” device integrable in a simple and practical way in every architectural solution.
Marketing experts foresee a sustained growth, which they must comply, in my opinion, the implementation of security mechanisms and appropriate laws and regulations that take into full account the privacy of users.